Archive for 2008

Drowning

 

  • Pull the victim out of the water and place him on land or the deck of the boat.
  • If he/she is coughing or sputtering, it means that the victim is breathing. Put him in the recovery position. This drain the water from his lungs and airways.
  • If the victim is not breathing but there is a pulse, do mouth-to-mouth resuscitation.
  • If the victim is not breathing and there is no pulse, do cardiopulmonary resuscitation or (CPR).

Electric Shock

    A person who accidentally touches frayed wires or faulty electrical appliances with wet hands or while standing on a wet ground will get an electric shock. A mild shock is merely painful, but a severe shock is life threatening.
  • The first thing to do is cut off the electrical current by pulling out the plug or switching off the power mains.
  • If this cannot be done, push the victim away from the point of contact with wooden or rubber – coated object (ex. Baseball bat, chair). Do not used metallic object. Stand on insulating material, such as phone book, while doing this.
  • Make sure that you do not come in direct contact with the source of electrical current or with the victim until he has been separated from the source of shock.
  • If the victim is breathing put him in the recovery position.
  • If he is not breathing but there is a pulse, do mouth-to-mouth resuscitation.
  • If the victim has no breathing and there is no pulse, do cardiopulmonary resuscitation or (CPR).
  • If there are burns, treat them.
  • If the shock comes from high-voltage source (ex. Power mains, electric train rails, etc), do not approach or attempt to rescue the victim. Maintain a distance of at least 18 meters. Go for expert help.

Choking

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Choking occurs when a piece of food of foreign object blocks the wind pipe and the person is unable to breathe. If the obstruction is only partial, the victim can usually breathe in enough air to cough and dislodge the object. Quick action is needed when the airway is totally blocked.





For children and adults:

  • Open his mouth and sweep a hooked finger deep inside to remove the obstruction.
  • If none is found,slap the victim hard between the shoulder blades four times with the heel of your hand.

  1. If the victim is a small child, raise your leg (e. g. by stepping on a stool)
    and drape him face – down over your thigh, with his head lower than his chest while slapping. Support his chest with one hand.

2. If the victims is a bigger child or an adult, hold his head lower than his chest while slapping.

  • If this fails to remove the obstruction, do the Heimlich maneuver.
  • If the blockage remains, do the Heimlich maneuver up to five times more, as necessary.
  • If the obstruction is still not dislodged, lay the victim on his back, place the heel of one hand above the navel, place your other hand on the top of it, then press downward and slightly upward in one quick motion.
  • If this fails, do mouth – to – mouth resuscitation.

  1. Have the person stand and support him from behind.
  2. Clench a fist and put it right under the breastbone, with the angle of the thumb against the abdomen.
  3. Grasp the fist firmly with the other hand.
  4. Jerk your hands inward and slightly upward, giving the victim a hard squeeze.

  • If the blockage remains, do the Heimlich maneuver up to five times more, as necessary.
  • If the obstruction is still not dislodged, lay the victim on his back, place the heel of one hand above the navel, place your other hand on the top of it, then press downward and slightly upward in one quick motion.
  • If this fails, do mouth – to – mouth resuscitation.



For Infants/babies:




After checking the baby's mouth for debris, put him face down on your forearm with his behind towards you. Slant your forearm downwards so that his head is lower than his body, while holding hi jaws to support his head. Slap him four times between the shoulder blades. Do not slap him as hard as you would an adult. If the obstruction remains, lay him on his back and do four chest compressions. If this fails, do mouth – to – nose or mouth – to – mouth resuscitation.

First Aid



We do not know when we will need to react quickly to an emergency situation. And we do not know how we will react or if we are certain of what course of crucial. It could very well turn out to be a life-saver. This section is not intended to train you in the skill of first aid. However, it can help you cope with any possible emergency at home, at work or at play, until professional medical help arrives.

First Aid
First aid is the skilled application of treatment, using facilities or materials available at the time, that any trained individual gives an ill or injured person while waiting for medical assistance to arrive.
One who gives first aid always strives to:
  • Preserve the victim,s life.
  • Prevent complications or keep the condition from worsening.
  • Aid recovery.
  • Assure the victim by comforting him and relieving pain.
Anyone who gives first aid must know exactly what to do in different situations, as the wrong treatment could aggravate a victim's condition instead of improving it.

Accidents
Accidents here refer to unexpected mishaps. If the resulting injuries are severe, send someone to call for a doctor or ambulance immediately while you begin firs aid. Time is of vital importance; any delay in medical attention increases the risk of complications or death.
If you are alone, however, you may need to administer first aid before going for help if the person's life is in danger.

Follow this steps

  • Check for DANGER
    to you , others and the casualty. Move casualty only if necessary.
  • Check for RESPONSE
    Gently shake the casualty. If victims is an infant or young child, look for eye-opening response.
  • Call for HELP
    call an ambulance or EMS
    to call for ambulance assistance just dial 117 / 911.
    If the casualty must be moved or pulled to safety, move his body length-wise (not sideways). A blanket, rug or long coat under him may be used to pull him along. If he must be lifted, get the help of two or three people to support his body in a straight line.
    A stretcher is the best mode of moving an accident victims. You can improvise one from a door or a wide board; or you can make one out of poles and two buttoned jackets with the sleeves turned inward so that the poles may be run through the armholes. Never bundle a seriously injured person into a car to take him to the nearest hospital.

If the victim is conscious and complains that he/she cannot feel or move his limbs, he/she may have a spinal injury. A victim with severe head injury must be presumed to have neck spine injury. Immobilize the neck with sand bags or apply a Philadelphia collar or cervical collar (if available). Do not move a person with spinal injury without trained help unless his life is in immediate danger. The person should be covered to keep him warm and any tight clothing should be loosened. Check for severe bleeding and try to stop it. If possible, raise hi legs for better blood circulation in the brain.

If the victim is unconscious do ABC.
  • AClear AIRWAY
    Remove debris from the mouth (ie, blood, vomitus, knocked teeth, dentures) and tilt the head backward after ensuring there is no spinal injury.
  • B Check for BREATHING
    Look for chest rise and fall; listen for breath sounds; feel for breath on your own hand.
    If casualty is NOT breathing but there is a pulse, give two blows or do mouth-to-mouth resuscitation
    If casualty is unconscious but breathing, put him in the recovery position to prevent suffocation.
  • C Check for CIRCULATION
    Take hi pulse. Place two fingers at the wrist or just below the angel of the jaw or at the groin. A normal adult has 60-80 heart beats per minute.
    If there is no pulse, do Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation or CPR.
See how to do CPR.
    You can only stop doing CPR when the victim have pulse and breathing
    or the AMBULANCE has arrive.


The Recovery Position


The recovery position is the correct position in which to place a victim who is breathing, while waiting for help to arrive. Do not put a person in the recovery position if you suspect that he has a spinal injury or severe fractures.
  • Lie the victim on his back and kneel beside him. Tilt the head back and lift the chin to open the airway. If he/she is wearing glasses, remove them; loosen his shirt, belt and pants. If the victim is female ask permission to the relatives before proceeding to the steps
  • Straighten both legs and place the arm nearest to you at right angles to the victim's body, elbow bent, with the palm of the hand upper most.
  • Bring the far arm across his chest and hold the hand against the victim's cheek, palm outwards.
  • With the other hand, grasp the furthermost thigh and pull the knee up, keeping the foot on the ground.
  • Support the victim's head by keeping the hand pressed against his cheek with one hand. Roll him towards you with the other hand holding the bent knee of the farthermost leg.
  • Tilt the head back to open the airway, adjust the hand to support the head.
  • Adjust the uppermost leg so that the hip and knee are at right angles.
  • Check that the victim's breathing and pulse are regular.

Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation ( CPR)


CPR (Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation)

Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is a lifesaving technique useful in many emergencies, including heart attack or near drowning, in which someone's breathing or heartbeat has stopped.
Ideally, CPR involves two elements: chest compressions combined with mouth-to-mouth rescue breathing. (A complete description of how to do both follows farther down in this article.)
However, what you as a bystander actually should do in an emergency situation really depends on your knowledge and comfort level.
The bottom line is that it's far better to do something than to do nothing at all if you're fearful that your knowledge or abilities aren't 100 percent complete. Remember, the difference between your doing something and doing nothing could be someone's life.
Here's the latest advice from the American Heart Association:
  • Untrained. If you're not trained in CPR, then provide hands-only CPR. That means uninterrupted chest presses of about two per second until paramedics arrive (described in more detail below). You don't need to try rescue breathing.
  • Trained, and ready to go. If you're well trained, and confident in your ability, then you can opt for one of two approaches: 1. Alternate between 30 chest compressions and two rescue breaths, or 2. Just do chest compressions. (Details described below.)
  • Trained, but rusty. If you've previously received CPR training, but you're not confident in your abilities, then it's fine to do just chest compressions.
The above advice applies only to adults needing CPR, not to children.
CPR can keep oxygenated blood flowing to the brain and other vital organs until more definitive medical treatment can restore a normal heart rhythm.
When the heart stops, the absence of oxygenated blood can cause irreparable brain damage in only a few minutes. Death will occur within eight to 10 minutes. Time is critical when you're helping an unconscious person who isn't breathing.
To learn CPR properly, take an accredited first-aid training course, including CPR and how to use an automatic external defibrillator (AED).

Before you begin

Assess the situation before starting CPR:
  • Is the person conscious or unconscious?
  • If the person appears unconscious, tap or shake his or her shoulder and ask loudly, "Are you OK?"
  • If the person doesn't respond and two people are available, one should call 911 or the local emergency number and one should begin CPR. If you are alone and have immediate access to a telephone, call 911 before beginning CPR — unless you think the person has become unresponsive because of suffocation (such as from drowning). In this special case, begin CPR for one minute and then call 911.
  • If an AED is immediately available, deliver one shock if advised by the device, then begin CPR.







Remember the ABCs

Think ABC — Airway, Breathing and Circulation — to remember the steps explained below. Move quickly through Airway and Breathing to begin chest compressions to restore circulation.

AIRWAY: Clear the airway

  1. Put the person on his or her back on a firm surface.
  2. Kneel next to the person's neck and shoulders.
  3. Open the person's airway using the head-tilt, chin-lift maneuver. Put your palm on the person's forehead and gently tilt the head back. Then with the other hand, gently lift the chin forward to open the airway.
  4. Check for normal breathing, taking no more than five or 10 seconds: Look for chest motion, listen for breath sounds, and feel for the person's breath on your cheek and ear. Gasping is not considered to be normal breathing. If the person isn't breathing normally and you are trained in CPR, begin mouth-to-mouth breathing. If you believe the person is unconscious from a heart attack and you haven't been trained in emergency procedures, skip mouth-to-mouth rescue breathing and proceed directly to chest compressions to restore circulation.

BREATHING: Breathe for the person

Rescue breathing can be mouth-to-mouth breathing or mouth-to-nose breathing if the mouth is seriously injured or can't be opened.
  1. With the airway open (using the head-tilt, chin-lift maneuver) pinch the nostrils shut for mouth-to-mouth breathing and cover the person's mouth with yours, making a seal.
  2. Prepare to give two rescue breaths. Give the first rescue breath — lasting one second — and watch to see if the chest rises. If it does rise, give the second breath. If the chest doesn't rise, repeat the head-tilt, chin-lift maneuver and then give the second breath.
  3. Begin chest compressions to restore circulation.
CIRCULATION:

Restore blood circulation with chest compressions

  1. Place the heel of one hand over the center of the person's chest, between the nipples. Place your other hand on top of the first hand. Keep your elbows straight and position your shoulders directly above your hands.
  2. Use your upper body weight (not just your arms) as you push straight down on (compress) the chest 2 inches (approximately 5 centimeters). Push hard and push fast — give two compressions per second, or about 120 compressions per minute.
  3. After 30 compressions, tilt the head back and lift the chin up to open the airway. Prepare to give two rescue breaths. Pinch the nose shut and breathe into the mouth for one second. If the chest rises, give a second rescue breath. If the chest doesn't rise, repeat the head-tilt, chin-lift maneuver and then give the second rescue breath. That's one cycle. If someone else is available, ask that person to give two breaths after you do 30 compressions.
  4. If the person has not begun moving after five cycles (about two minutes) and an automatic external defibrillator (AED) is available, apply it and follow the prompts. The American Heart Association recommends administering one shock, then resuming CPR — starting with chest compressions — for two more minutes before administering a second shock. If you're not trained to use an AED, a 911 operator may be able to guide you in its use. Trained staff at many public places are also able to provide and use an AED. Use pediatric pads, if available, for children ages 1 to 8. Do not use an AED for infants younger than age 1. If an AED isn't available, go to No. 5 below.
  5. Continue CPR until there are signs of movement or until emergency medical personnel take over.
To perform CPR on a child

The procedure for giving CPR to a child age 1 through 8 is essentially the same as that for an adult. The differences are as follows:
  • If you're alone, perform five cycles of compressions and breaths on the child — this should take about two minutes — before calling 911 or your local emergency number or using an AED.
  • Use only one hand to perform heart compressions.
  • Breathe more gently.
  • Use the same compression-breath rate as is used for adults: 30 compressions followed by two breaths. This is one cycle. Following the two breaths, immediately begin the next cycle of compressions and breaths.
  • After five cycles (about two minutes) of CPR, if there is no response and an AED is available, apply it and follow the prompts. Use pediatric pads if available. If pediatric pads aren't available, use adult pads.
Continue until the child moves or help arrives.

To perform CPR on a baby

Most cardiac arrests in infants occur from lack of oxygen, such as from drowning or choking. If you know the infant has an airway obstruction, perform first aid for choking. If you don't know why the infant isn't breathing, perform CPR.
To begin, assess the situation. Stroke the baby and watch for a response, such as movement, but don't shake the child.
If there's no response, follow the ABC procedures below and time the call for help as follows:
  • If you're the only rescuer and CPR is needed, do CPR for two minutes — about five cycles — before calling 911 or your local emergency number.
  • If another person is available, have that person call for help immediately while you attend to the baby.
AIRWAY: Clear the airway

  1. Place the baby on his or her back on a firm, flat surface, such as a table. The floor or ground also will do.
  2. Gently tip the head back by lifting the chin with one hand and pushing down on the forehead with the other hand.
  3. In no more than 10 seconds, put your ear near the baby's mouth and check for breathing: Look for chest motion, listen for breath sounds, and feel for breath on your cheek and ear.
If the infant isn't breathing, begin mouth-to-mouth breathing immediately.


BREATHING: Breathe for the infant

  1. Cover the baby's mouth and nose with your mouth.
  2. Prepare to give two rescue breaths. Use the strength of your cheeks to deliver gentle puffs of air (instead of deep breaths from your lungs) to slowly breathe into the baby's mouth one time, taking one second for the breath. Watch to see if the baby's chest rises. If it does, give a second rescue breath. If the chest does not rise, repeat the head-tilt, chin-lift maneuver and then give the second breath.
  3. If the chest still doesn't rise, examine the mouth to make sure no foreign material is inside. If the object is seen, sweep it out with your finger. If the airway seems blocked, perform first aid for a choking infant.
  4. Begin chest compressions to restore circulation.

CIRCULATION: Restore blood circulation

  1. Imagine a horizontal line drawn between the baby's nipples. Place two fingers of one hand just below this line, in the center of the chest.
  2. Gently compress the chest to about one-third to one-half the depth of the chest.
  3. Count aloud as you pump in a fairly rapid rhythm. You should pump at a rate of about 100 to 120 pumps a minute.
  4. Give two breaths after every 30 chest compressions.
  5. Perform CPR for about two minutes before calling for help unless someone else can make the call while you attend to the baby.
  6. Continue CPR until you see signs of life or until a professional relieves you.







CPR |Poisoning |First Aid |Wounds and Injuries |



Electrical Burn

(Example of an electrical burn)

An electrical burn may appear minor or not show on the skin at all, but the damage can extend deep into the tissues beneath your skin. If a strong electrical current passes through your body, internal damage, such as a heart rhythm disturbance or cardiac arrest, can occur. Sometimes the jolt associated with the electrical burn can cause you to be thrown or to fall, resulting in fractures or other associated injuries.

Dial 911 or call for emergency medical assistance if the person who has been burned is in pain, is confused, or is experiencing changes in his or breathing, heartbeat or consciousness.

While helping someone with an electrical burn and waiting for medical help, follow these steps:

  1. Look first. Don't touch. The person may still be in contact with the electrical source. Touching the person may pass the current through you.

  2. Turn off the source of electricity if possible. If not, move the source away from both you and the injured person using a dry nonconducting object made of cardboard, plastic or wood.

  3. Check for signs of circulation (breathing, coughing or movement). If absent, begin cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) immediately.

  4. Prevent shock. Lay the person down with the head slightly lower than the trunk and the legs elevated.

  5. Cover the affected areas. If the person is breathing, cover any burned areas with a sterile gauze bandage, if available, or a clean cloth. Don't use a blanket or towel. Loose fibers can stick to the burns.

Chemical Burns






If a chemical burns the skin, follow these steps:

  1. Remove the cause of the burn by flushing the chemicals off the skin surface with cool, running water for 20 minutes or more. If the burning chemical is a powder-like substance, such as lime, brush it off the skin before flushing.

  2. Remove clothing or jewelry that has been contaminated by the chemical.

  3. Apply a cool, wet cloth or towel to relieve pain.

  4. Wrap the burned area loosely with a dry, sterile dressing or a clean cloth.

  5. Rewash the burned area for several more minutes if the person experiences increased burning after the initial washing.

Minor chemical burns usually heal without further treatment.

Seek emergency medical assistance if:

  • The victim has signs of shock, such as fainting, pale complexion or breathing in a notably shallow manner.

  • The chemical burn penetrated through the first layer of skin, and the resulting second-degree burn covers an area more than 3 inches (7.5 centimeters) in diameter.

  • The chemical burn occurred on the eye, hands, feet, face, groin or buttocks, or over a major joint.

  • The victim has pain that cannot be controlled with over-the-counter pain relievers such as acetaminophen (Tylenol, others) or ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin, others).

If you're unsure whether a substance is toxic, call the poison control center at 117. If you seek emergency assistance, bring the chemical container or a complete description of the substance with you for identification.



First Aid for Burns



To distinguish a minor burn from a serious burn, the first step is to determine the degree and the extent of damage to body tissues. The three classifications of first-degree burn, second-degree burn and third-degree burn will help you determine emergency care:


First-degre
e burn
The least serious burns are those in which only the outer layer of skin is burned. The skin is usually red, with swelling and pain sometimes present. The outer layer of skin hasn't been burned through. Treat a first-degree burn as a minor burn unless it involves substantial portions of the hands, feet, face, groin or buttocks, or a major joint.






Second-degree burn
When the first layer of skin has been burned through and the second layer of skin (dermis) also is burned, the injury is called a second-degree burn. Blisters develop and the skin takes on an intensely reddened, splotchy appearance. Second-degree burns produce severe pain and swelling.

If the second-degree burn is no larger than 3 inches (7.5 centimeters) in diameter, treat it as a minor burn. If the burned area is larger or if the burn is on the hands, feet, face, groin or buttocks, or over a major joint, treat it as a major burn and get medical help immediately.

For minor burns, including first-degree burns and second-degree burns limited to an area no larger than 3 inches (7.5 centimeters) in diameter, take the following action:

  • Cool the burn. Hold the burned area under cold running water for at least five minutes, or until the pain subsides. If this is impractical, immerse the burn in cold water or cool it with cold compresses. Cooling the burn reduces swelling by conducting heat away from the skin. Don't put ice on the burn.

  • Cover the burn with a sterile gauze bandage. Don't use fluffy cotton, which may irritate the skin. Wrap the gauze loosely to avoid putting pressure on burned skin. Bandaging keeps air off the burned skin, reduces pain and protects blistered skin.

  • Take an over-the-counter pain reliever. These include aspirin, ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin, others), naproxen (Aleve) or acetaminophen (Tylenol, others). Never give aspirin to children or teenagers.

Minor burns usually heal without further treatment. They may heal with pigment changes, meaning the healed area may be a differe

nt color from the surrounding skin. Watch for signs of infection, such as increased pain, redness, fever, swelling or oozing. If infection develops, seek medical help. Avoid re-injuring or tanning if the burns are less than a year old — doing so may cause more extensive pigmentation changes. Use sunscreen on the area for at least a year.

Caution

  • Don't use ice. Putting ice directly on a burn can cause frostbite, further damaging your skin.

  • Don't apply butter or ointments to the burn. This could prevent proper healing.

  • Don't break blisters. Broken blisters are vulnerable to infection.










Third-degree burn
The most serious burns are painless, involve all layers of the skin and cause permanent tissue damage. Fat, muscle and even bone may be affected. Areas may be charred black or appear dry and white. Difficulty inhaling and exhaling, carbon monoxide poisoning, or other toxic effects may occur if smoke inhalation accompanies the burn.

For major burns, dial 911 or call for emergency medical assistance. Until an emergency unit arrives, follow these steps:

  1. Don't remove burnt clothing. However, do make sure the victim is no longer in contact with smoldering materials or exposed to smoke or heat.

  2. Don't immerse large severe burns in cold water. Doing so could cause shock.

  3. Check for signs of circulation (breathing, coughing or movement). If there is no breathing or other sign of circulation, begin cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR).

  4. Elevate the burned body part or parts. Raise above heart level, when possible.

  5. Cover the area of the burn. Use a cool, moist, sterile bandage; clean, moist cloth; or moist towels.



CPR |Burn's |First Aid |Wounds and Injuries |




First Aid


A poison is a substance that causes injury or illness when it gets into a person's body.The four ways a person can be poisoned are: ingestion (swallowing it), inhalation (breathing it), absorption (absorbing it through the skin), and injection (by having it injected into the body). Ingested poisons include foods, alcohol, medication, household and garden items, and certain plants. Inhaled poisons may be gases, like carbon monoxide from car exhaust, carbon dioxide from sewers, and chlorine from a pool, or fumes from household products like glue, paint, cleaners, or drugs. Absorbed poisons enter the body through the skin; they may come from plants, fertilizers or pesticides. Injected poisons enter the body through bites or stings of insects, spiders, ticks, marine life, snakes, and other animals, or medications injected with a hypodermic needle.

Ingestion

If you suspect that someone has been poisoned, call your Poison Control Center or EMS immediately. Signs of poisoning are: nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, chest or abdominal pain, difficulty breathing, changes in consciousness, seizures, or burns around the lips or tongue or on the skin. If you believe someone may have swallowed a poison, try to determine what type of poison was ingested, how much was taken, and when it was taken. If you find a container, bring it to the telephone with you when you make your emergency call. Do not give the victim anything to eat or drink unless medical professionals tell you to. If you are unsure of what the poison was and the victim vomits, savce some of ti so that the hospital may analyze it and determine what the poison was.

Inhalation

If you suspect that someone has been poisoned, call your Poison Control Center or EMS immediately. Signs of poisoning by inhalation may include pale or bluish skin. Remove the victim from the source of the toxic fumes so he or she can get some fresh air as soon as possible.

Absorption

If you suspect that someone has been poisoned, call your Poison Control Center or EMS immediately. If poison, such as dry or wet chemicals, gets on the skin, flush the area with large amounts of water, and continue flushing the area with water until EMS arrives. If you have simply had a run-in with poison ivy, poison oak or poison sumac, there is no need to call EMS. Wash the affected area with soap and water. If you develop a rash, put a paste of baking soda and water on the area several times a day, or use an anti-itch lotion or an antihistamine to relieve the itchiness. Be aware that some people can have allergic reactions to even over-the-counter drugs to stop itching...use caution and if you have any doubts about whether you are allergic, talk to you doctor! . See a doctor if the condition gets worse, affecting large areas of the body or face.



Injection-Stings and Bites

If someone is stung by an insect, such as a bee,

  • remove the stinger by scraping it away from the skin with your fingernail or a plastic card, or use tweezers.

  • Wash the area with soap and water, cover it to keep it clean, and apply ice to reduce pain and swelling.

  • If the victim begins to have trouble breathing, he or she may be experiencing an allergic reaction and his or her body is going into anaphylactic shock.

  • You must CALL EMS immediately or the victim's airway may constrict, preventing breathing and killing the victim.


Spiders

Only two spiders in the U.S. have bites that can make you seriously ill or kill you. The black widow spider is black with a reddish hourglass shape on the underside of its body. The brown recluse spider is light brown with a darker brown, violin-shaped marking on the top of its body. Both prefer dark, out-of-the-way places, and bites usually occur on the arms or hands of people rummaging in dark garages or attics or in wood piles(In other words, don't go looking for them and they won't bite you!).

Symptoms of spider bites and scorpion stings are:

nausea, vomiting, difficulty breathing or swallowing, sweating and salivating profusely, severe pain in the bite/sting area, a mark indicating a bite/sting, and swelling of the area. If you suspect you have been bitten by a black widow or a brown recluse or stung by a scorpion.

  • Wash the wound,

  • Apply ice to the area, and call EMS immediately.

  • Antivenins, medications that block the effect of the poison, are available.









(at left is a Black Widow and at right is a Brown recluse)









(at left is a bite of a Brown recluse spider and at te right is a bite of a Black widow spider)

Scorpions

Only a few species of scorpions are known to cause death. Scorpions live in dry regions of the southwestern U.S. and Mexico, under rocks, logs and the bark of certain trees. They are most active at night.

If you are stung by a scorpion.

  • You would be wise to call EMS unless you are positive that the one that bit you is not poisonous.









(at left is a Jelly fish and at right is a Scorpion)

Marine Life , Snakes and Other Animals

The stings of some different types of marine life, such as sting rays, sea anemones and jellyfish may make you sick. If you are stung.

  • Soak the affected area in salt water and apply a paste of baking soda or meat tenderizer.

  • Or even ice, as soon as possible to reduce swelling.

  • If you are unsure what stung you, have a history of allergic reactions to marine life stings, are stung on the face or neck, or are having difficulty breathing, call EMS immediately.

If you are bitten by a wild or domestic animal, you may get an infection and you will have injury to the soft tissue. The most serious possible consequence is rabies, which is transmitted through the saliva of diseased animals, including dogs, cats, raccoons, skunks, cattle, and bats. Infected animals may behave strangely; for example, a nocturnal animal like a raccoon may be active during the day, or the animal may drool, appear partially paralyzed, or act irritable, mean, or quiet. Rabies is fatal if it is not treated promptly.

  • If you suspect that you have bitten by a rabid animal, call EMS immediately.

  • Get away from the animal. DO NOT try to catch or hold it.

  • Wash the wound with soap and water if it is minor, control bleeding and apply an antibiotic ointment and a dressing.

  • If the wound is bleeding heavily, do not try to wash it; just try to control the bleeding, and call EMS.

  • Try to remember what the animal looked like, as well as where you last saw it.

  • Call EMS and inform them, and they will get the proper authorities involved.









At left is a (RattleSnake), at center is a(Copperhead) and AT right is a (CottonMouth) snake. This snake are poisonous.

There many different species of snakes. Most are nonpoisonous. The bite of a nonpoisonous snake can cause pain and infection, but is rarely serious. There are three types of poisonous snakes and their bites can cause serious illness and even death. Eastern and Western diamondback rattlesnakes have facial pits, elliptical, rather than round, pupils, and a triangular shaped head that is larger than the neck. (There is a water snake with a triangular shaped head, but no facial pits on the side of its head between its eye and nostril. This is not a poisonous snake!) Diamondback rattlesnake venom is the most potent of the three poisonous species in Oklahoma. The pygmy rattlesnake and other types of rattle snakes .The other two poisonous snakes are the cottonmouth as water moccasin), and the copperhead.


Firs Aid For Non Poisonous Bites

  • Remove all constrictive clothing, shoes, or jewelry from bitten hand or bitten leg.

  • Wash the wound with soap and water.

  • Place a cold pack or ice pack on the wound, 15 minutes on and 15 minutes off.

  • Keep victim calm. Do not give sedative or alcohol.


First Aid For Poisonous Bites

  • Stay calm. Do not waste time trying to capture or kill the snake.

  • Follow general first aid, except DO NOT apply an ice pack or cold pack to the wound.

  • Keep the bite at the level of the heart.

  • DO NOT cut into the wound - this will spread the venom and cause infection.

  • DO NOT suck on the wound with your mouth - this will cause infection and little venom will actually be removed.

  • DO NOT apply a tourniquet or constricting band - this cuts off the blood supply to the wound.


Proceed immediately to the hospital for evaluation and treatment of poisonous snake bite. An antivenin is available, but is reserved for patients with life threatening symptoms.




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Opening of Kiddie Fire Marshal






ACTIVITY


What: Opening showdown for Kiddie Fire Brigade.

When: October 20, 2008.

Where: At the front of Mandaue City Hall.

Time: 8:00 am

Participants: ANS Rescue, Selected students from Labogon National High School

Assisted by: BFP and CEVSAR

A program of: BFP and DepEd